18-22 July 2016
Hotel Wyndham Grand Axelmannstein, Bad Reichenhall, Germany
Europe/Berlin timezone

Operando Diffraction During Li Battery Operation using Neutron and Synchrotron X-Ray Radiations

Not scheduled
50m
Hotel Wyndham Grand Axelmannstein, Bad Reichenhall, Germany

Hotel Wyndham Grand Axelmannstein, Bad Reichenhall, Germany

Salzburger Str. 2-6 83453 Bad Reichenhall
Keynote Energy storage & transformation

Speaker

Dr Jean-Noël Chotard (Laboratoire de Réactivité et Chimie des Solides)

Description

Performing in situ and operando measurements on electrode materials for Li-ion and Na-ion batteries is of importance for their understanding and improvement. Electrode materials need to be studied in their environment (in situ) and in real time while they function (operando), since they normally operate in non-equilibrium conditions. Real-time experiments upon charge/discharge of the electrodes (i.e. upon lithium or sodium extraction/insertion from/into the electrodes) unveil dynamics that are not accessible by other means and allow a more complete understanding of the electrodes’ functioning. The use of different probes is an important requirement for the study of such reactions. The combined use of X-Ray Powder Diffraction (XRPD), Synchrotron radiation XRPD and Neutrons Powder Diffraction (NPD) allows observing any atomic element in any crystalline electrode. However, custom setups are required to carry out operando diffraction experiments on batteries. We recently designed an electrochemical cell manufactured with a completely neutron-transparent (Ti,Zr) alloy [1]. Used with deuterated electrolytes, the cell is able to combine good electrochemical properties and the ability to collect ND patterns operando, with good statistics and no other Bragg peaks than those of the electrode material of interest. Importantly, this allows detailed structural determinations by Rietveld refinement during operation. The cell was validated using well-known battery materials such as LiFePO4 and Li1.1Mn1.9O4 demonstrating real operando experiments conducted on the D20 high flux neutron powder diffractometer at ILL Grenoble, France. Importantly, we showed the possibility to succeed in reliable structural refinements (by the Rietveld method) and thus to observe structural modifications in details, from unit cell parameters to atomic coordinates and even site occupancy factors. We will discuss a few studies done with this setup, namely the observation of lithium extraction from different samples in the family of spinels Li1+xMn2-xO4. We performed NPD in real time on three samples (LiMn2O4, Li1.05Mn1.95O4 and Li1.10Mn1.90O4) and showed how the Li/Mn ratio influences the phase diagram of the material [2]. New insights obtained from high resolution – high flux Synchrotron X-Ray diffraction data will be presented, in particular the existence of a Li+ and Mn3+/Mn4+ ordering within the spinel-delithiated composition Li0.5Mn2O4 [3].

Primary author

Dr Jean-Noël Chotard (Laboratoire de Réactivité et Chimie des Solides)

Co-authors

Prof. Christian MASQUELIER (Laboratoire de Réactivité et Chimie des Solides) Dr Emmanuelle SUARD (ILL, Grenoble, France) François FAUTH (CELLS - ALBA Synchrotron, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Barcelona, Spain) Dr Laurence CROGUENNEC (ICMCB-CNRS, Pessac, France) Dr Matteo BIANCHINI (LRCS/ICMCB-CNRS/ILL)

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