Destination - history and highlights of Parma
The roman colony was founded in 183 BC. At the fall of the Roman Empire it underwent successive periods of relative independence (free city) and submission. Welth is documented by the Duomo that was consecrated in 1106 and in the 1178 Benedetto Antelami l(left: Deposition) concluded the construction of the facade and the Baptistry. The first half of the millennium was a period of local and European wars. Many castles, still existent, were built in those years, among which Torrechiara.
In the 14th century Parma was submitted to Visconti and Sforza from Milan. They were later replaced by the French, until Alessandro Farnese, Pope Paul III, defeated the latter and assigned Parma and Piacenza to his illegitimate son Pier Luigi as a duchy. The palace of Pilotta and the Reggio di Colorno are two major vestiges of the Farnese domination that ended by succession to the Bourbon, through whom the city fell again under the French influence. After the Peace of Aachen (1748), under the rule of prime minister Guillaume de Tillot, the Biblioteca Palatina (Palatine Library), the Archaeological Museum, the Picture Gallery and the Botanical Garden were founded, together with the Royal Printing Works directed by Giambattista Bodoni, author of the Bodoni font.
Today Parma is a medium-small city (180.000 inhabitants). It is the capital of the Food Valley, hosting several food transformation and the correlated mechanical industries. Its name is reflected in the Parma ham and Parmesan cheese brands. It is the site of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Another Parma stronghold is the pharmaceutical industry.